Division of Labour/Specialisation

Division of labour enabled workers to become specialised for specific jobs. Division of labour means the work is divided into smaller tasks and each task becomes the work of one individual or group of workers. When this happens, each worker who took that special task becomes specialised at that task and quickly masters the art of performing that work.

Benefits of specialisation for the individual

1. More goods and services can be produced.
When workers become specialists in the jobs they do, repetition of the same operations increases skill and the speed of the worker and as a result, more is produced.

2. Full use is made of everyone’s abilities.
With specialisation, there is greater chance that people will be able to do things at which they are best and which interest them most. This means people can become perfect in their special abilities.

3. Time is saved.
If a person has to do many different tasks or operations, then much time will be wasted switching from one task to another. With specialisation time is saved by not having to move around.
Time also can be saved when training people. It would be difficult and time consuming to train somebody to do all the tasks required to build a complete car, but a person can be trained quickly to fulfil one operation of the process.

4. Use of machinery.
As labour is divided into specialised tasks, specialised machinery can be used which is further increase the productivity.

Disadvantages of specialisation to the individual

1. Work may become boring.
A worker who performs the same operation each and every day is likely to get very bored.

2. People become too dependent upon each other.
Due to specialisation, no single person alone is able to complete the production process. It also means that people have to rely on others for the provision of goods and services.

3. Lack of variety.
Though the number of goods produced increases but they are identical or standardized.

4.Lack of mobility
Due to specialisation workers might find it difficult to switch between occupations.

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