Other measures of growth

It is important to note that economic growth is not the same as living standards. However, without economic growth it is difficult to achieve higher standards of living. However, economic growth alone, and HDI alone may not be enough to determine how developed a country is and how happy people are to live in that country. We can look at many indicators that can be considered.

1. The percentage of adult male and female labour in agriculture, and the percentage of arable land that is cultivated

2. Combined primary and secondary school enrollment figures and other indicators of progress in building human capital. 1990 HDR started with this phrase: “People are the real wealth of a nation.”

3. Access to clean water / improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

4. Energy consumption per capita

5. Depth of hunger, kilocalories per day per capita

6. Prevalence of HIV, average life expectancy at birth, years of healthy life expectancy, child mortality

7. Access to mobile cellular phones per thousand of the population

8. Percentage of the population living in extreme poverty

9. Dependence on foreign aid / levels of external debt

10. Percentage of households with a bank account

11. Unemployment rates and vulnerable employment rates

12. High-technology exports (% of manufactured exports)

13. Progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals

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